Saturday, November 28, 2015

The Transformative Engagement Network (TEN) Team, Maynooth University - Presentation for the National Teaching Expert Awards

Today I had the pleasure of presenting the TEN team's work to the National Teaching and Learning Forum as part of their inaugural Teaching Experts Award. At Maynooth University TEN is Prof. Anne Ryan, Prof. Martin Downes, Dr. Bernie Grummell, Maggie Noone and myself. However we are but the tip of the iceberg of all our colleagues and students in Mzuzu University (Malawi), the Open University and Mulungushi University (Zambia) who made this project a huge success, teaching awards or not. Below is the script of the presentation I tried to give in representing the excellent work of all. Of course all this falls waaay short of reality. 


Challenges Addressed
Our project speaks to two grand challenges facing higher education. First we live in a world of unprecedented social, economic and environmental change. One unique aspect of contemporary change is that it can be characterised as ‘wicked’ - complex with multiple interactions that cross multiple governance boundaries, change that creates social, economic and environmental feedbacks that result in deep uncertainties and present profound ethical and moral challenges and engenders a lack of agreement about cause and solution.

Navigating the scale and complexity of contemporary change cannot be done from a single disciplinary perspective and requires Universities to transition to creating knowledge that involves moving beyond constrained disciplinary boundaries to inter-disciplinary learning. Learning that integrates the strengths and insights from across disciplines, building on action, experimentation and evaluation. Learning that moves beyond the ivory tower to engage meaningfully with stakeholders to develop deep understanding and pedagogical tools that equip graduates with the skills necessary in managing change and uncertainty in a complex world.

The second challenge is the hegemonic positioning of western knowledge, science and technology in determining how we should respond to global challenges. Epistemologies of the north dominate education, research and development. This is despite the fact that those who are most vulnerable are often very far from western science, much closer to culture, and have different ways of knowing and understanding the world. Developing the types of knowledge necessary to address contemporary dilemmas requires transformation of approaches used in teaching, research and engagements that include the knowledge and perspectives of those who are excluded - those that are most vulnerable.

What we did
Against these challenges we developed an international inter-disciplinary masters in Transformative Community Development with the objective of i) transforming the nature of engagement between agencies, universities and communities who are vulnerable to climate change and food security, ii). to bridge the divide between the types of knowledge critical to sustainable development and iii). to empower the most vulnerable with increased agency in responding to the challenges they face.

Our masters was built on partnerships. Partnerships for learning that respected different approaches and ways of knowing. Partnerships across institutions – our own and three African Universities (2 in Zambia and 1 in Malawi). Partnerships across disciplines, including Geography, Adult and Community Education, Biology, Sociology, Hydrology and Land Management. Partnerships between students and academics, learning together rather than through instruction, and critically partnerships beyond the academy between communities and universities. Each of our partner Universities selected a community of practice around which we scaffolded our learning. These communities of practice comprised smallholder farmers and the agencies and professionals that worked with them – providing the site upon which student learning and research was grounded and informed.

Our students were professionals who worked with the communities on various aspects of climate change and food security – employed by national and local government agencies, national and international NGOs. Our aim was for these students to become agents of transformation, taking the insights from their learning back to their workplace, employing the pedagogies of transformative learning to create opportunities for lasting change.

Our masters was built around blended learning, in the first year online modules were developed on moodle by academic teams from across disciplines at each partner university while on site discussions and workshops had the purpose of linking learning with the experience of communities.

Mainstream pedagogies can position those outside the academy as knowledge-deficient. Similarly, mainstream development discourses can assume that an important ‘cause’ of poverty among groups such as smallholder farmers is a lack of modern scientific information and as a result much effort is spent conveying such information to smallholders. By contrast the transformative learning pedagogies drawn on in this Masters sought to position outside agencies and communities as knowledge pioneers, possessing and creating knowledge as they need it. Both of our exemplars highlight the innovations taken in this regard and the utility of these approaches to other learning contexts.

In the second year students undertook their research within the communities on topics that required interdisciplinary skills, deep engagement with communities and critical reflection on their own embedded ways of doing things.

Outcomes
Evaluation of learning impacts revealed that most of our students experienced transformative outcomes, experiencing a deep shift in world view, deeper self awareness and acting differently. Many of these aspects are evident in a reflective quote from one of our students - an agricultural extension worker;

"My participation in this programme has made me appreciate that within any community, there is a wealth of knowledge and experience, which if harnessed, can be used to change Communities for the better. I have come to realise that members of the community are assets- they have answers to the problems they face, thus, problems faced in communities can best be solved by community-dwellers themselves. My role now is to enable people in the community to act together to find solutions to their problems so that they can achieve their desired goals."

Evaluation of learning processes among our students reveal that routes to transformation are complex and require the integration of multiple pedagogical perspectives in facilitating transformation for individual students.

Communities themselves developed closer links with universities and agencies, increased trust and increased agency. For the Universities lasting collaborative linkages have been developed as well as a capacity to work in non-traditional ways. For our African partners this was their first masters programme and has been sustained and expanded.

For academics developing truly interdisciplinary and integrated approaches to learning requires openness on behalf of academics to interrogate the values that underpin our worldviews and an openness to criticism and risk-taking beyond the ivory tower. However, a willingness to do so results in deeper learning for the academic also. Finally extending the learning experience beyond the academy reinforces the need to avoid exceptionalism in addressing contemporary challenges and giving more voice to the most vulnerable.    

Friday, November 13, 2015

Newly published research on evaluating the persistence of prolonged drought periods for the Island of Ireland.



An evaluation of persistent meteorological drought using a
homogeneous Island of Ireland precipitation network

R. L. Wilby, S. Noone, C. Murphy, T. Matthews, S. Harrigan and C. Broderick

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY
Int. J. Climatol. (2015)
 Published online in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/joc.4523

ABSTRACT: This paper investigates the spatial and temporal properties of persistent meteorological droughts using the homogeneous Island of Ireland Precipitation (IIP) network. Relative to a 1961–1990 baseline period it is shown that the longest observed run of below average precipitation since the 1850s lasted up to 5 years (10 half-year seasons) at sites in southeast and east Ireland, or 3 years across the network as a whole. Dry spell and wet spell length distributions were represented by a first-order Markov model which yields realistic runs of below average rainfall for individual sites and IIP series. This model shows that there is relatively high likelihood (p=0.125) of a 5-year dry spell at Dublin, and that near unbroken dry runs of 10 years or more are conceivable. We suggest that the IIP network and attendant rainfall deficit modelling provide credible data for stress testing water supply and drought plans under extreme conditions.

This piece of research uses the homogeneous Island of Ireland Precipitation (IIP) network of Noone et al. (2015) to evaluate the occurrence and persistence of meteorological droughts from 1850-2010. For this research a drought is defined as half year periods or longer at site or regional scales that have below average precipitation. This examination uses seasonal rainfall and persistence metrics not applied in the homogenization process and allows for an independent quality assurance test of the IIP network.



The key findings show that the Island of Ireland has been prone to runs of seasonal rainfall deficits with prolonged dry spells in the 1850’s,1880’s and 1970’s that are far more persistent than any experienced in the last 40 years. These episodes could provide useful information that could be used to stress test the effectiveness of water supply and drought plans. These results should be of particular interest to Irish Water as they continue to invest in water infrastructure and design stress testing. This research has shown that there is a high likelihood (p=0.125) of a prolonged continuous 5 years (10 season) dry spell at Dublin. Population growth and out of date infrastructure mean that the Irish water system is already functioning on the brink of its capacity.




Tuesday, October 27, 2015

PhD Researchers Engage with Young European Environmentalists on COP21


In light of the crucial climate change talks in Paris (COP21) this December, PhD students Darren Clarke and Padraig Flattery were invited to address a group of young environmentalists from across Europe. The event was held as part of the ECO-UNESCO Transnational Youth Forum: ‘What’s so hot about climate change? Road to Paris 2015’. 

@DarrenClarke in action
Those attending were given a run-down of the most high-profile climate change talks of the past 20 years, from Kyoto in 1997 to Durban in 2012. The positive aspects (forming international agreements) and negative aspects (not sticking to international agreements) were highlighted to contextualise what might be expected in Paris next month.  

In the run-up to Paris, many countries have submitted 'Intended Nationally Determined Contributions' (INDCs) which outline their pledges to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in order to keep the average global temperature increase below 2°C, recognised as a 'safe' level of climate change.

@PadraigFlattery talks to students

Amongst the most notable pledges is the EU which has committed to at least a 40% reduction in greenhouse gases by 2030 compared to 1990 levels, the USA which has committed to a 26-28% cut by 2025 compared to 2005 levels, and China which has agreed to peak its greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. 

The major polluters (India, China, EU, USA) have all submitted INDCs but as Figure 1 shows the rest of the world would need to produce zero greenhouse gas emissions to stay within the 2°C target.

Fig. 1: Projected global emissions and the 2°C pathway (black line).
Source: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/10/10/105004/meta

Whatever agreement is reached in Paris (if any) won't come into force until 2020. In the meantime, many countries are not bound to any greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. 

Whether the political will to do something meaningful in Paris is there or not remains to be seen. If the climate change talks in the past are anything to go by, will we have yet another agreement made out of hot air?


Friday, October 23, 2015

Recently published work by researchers at ICARUS

Homogenisation and analysis of an expanded long-term monthly rainfall network for the Island of Ireland (1850-2010)
S. Noone, C. Murphy, J. Coll, T. Matthews, D. Mullan, R. L. Wilby and S. Walsh
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CLIMATOLOGY
Int. J. Climatol. (2015)
Published online in Wiley Online Library
(wileyonlinelibrary.com) DOI: 10.1002/joc.4522     (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/joc.4522/epdf)

In Ireland there is a lack of suitable quality controlled homogenised long term data sets. Long-term precipitation series are critical for understanding emerging changes to the hydrological cycle. In addressing this issue researchers at Irish Climate Analysis and Research UnitS (ICARUS), have been involved in a collaborative study with Met √Čireann and various researchers based in Universities across the UK and Northern Ireland. This study constructs a homogenised Island of Ireland Precipitation (IIP) network comprising 25 stations and a composite series covering the period 1850-2010, providing the second-longest regional precipitation archive in the British-Irish Isles.
A homogeneous climate time series is defined as one where variability is only caused by changes in weather or climate. Unfortunately most atmospheric data have been impacted adversely by non-climatic influences, such as changes in instrumentation or observer practices, station moves, or changes in the local environment. Following data bridging and updating of stations HOMER homogenisation software is employed to detect breaks/ potential issues. Detected issues are meticulously checked with available station metadata and any identified issues are corrected by HOMER.
Some of the key findings of this study reveal increasing (winter) and decreasing (summer) trends in precipitation over the period 1850-2010 (Figure 1). Table 1 presents the top 10 ranked wettest and driest season and years from the IIP series 1850-2010.
This work will be presenting by Simon Noone at the 10th EUMETNET Data Management Workshop on 27-30th October 2015 in St Gallen, Switzerland. (http://www.meteoswiss.admin.ch/home/research-and-cooperation/international-cooperation/eumetnet/10th-eumetnet-data-management-workshop.html )

The IIP series data is freely available for use and download at www.met.ie/downloads/Long-Term-IIP-network.zip.
Figure 1 IIP series moving windows trends calculated using the Mann–Kendall test with MK Z statistic plotted for all combinations of start and end years (minimum of 10 years).Significant (0.05 level) trends have a MK Zs >|1.96|. The y-axis denotes start year and x-axis the end year of analysis. Blue indicates positive trends; red indicates negative trends.


Winter
Spring
Summer
Autumn
Annual
Rank
Wettest
Driest
Wettest
Driest
Wettest
Driest
Wettest
Driest
Wettest
Driest
1st
1994
1891
1947
1893
1861
1995
2000
1933
1872
1887
2nd
1995
1964
1981
1990
2008
1913
2006
1922
2002
1933
3rd
1883
1855
1913
1929
1879
1869
1954
2007
2009
1855
4th
1915
1934
1986
1944
2009
1870
1875
1919
1852
1971
5th
1877
1953
1920
1887
1912
1976
1982
1912
1928
1893
6th
1966
2006
1897
1915
1958
1975
1944
1879
1903
1975
7th
1990
1858
1993
1975
1860
1983
1960
1854
1877
1953
8th
1869
1874
2002
1984
2007
1940
2002
1855
1960
1921
9th
1937
1963
1862
1875
1985
2006
1916
1893
1924
1854
10th
1974
1888
2006
1938
1852
1959
2009
1942
1958
1919
Table 1 Top 10 ranked wettest and driest seasons and years from the homogenised and extended Island of Ireland precipitation (IIP) series 1850-2010.

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